that U.S. presidential candidates were asked in 2016

The Army field guide on leader development provided indicators to assess leaders and chapter seven focuses on learning tasks and areas to develop which include: 

  1. Evaluating current capabilities & expanding them,
  2. by practicing "Developmental Activities " in areas that  were evaluated as needing improvement, such as:
  3. "Leads Others"
  4. "Builds Trust"
  5. "Extends Influence Beyond the Chain of Command"
  6. "Leads by Example"
  7. "Communicates"
  8. "Creates a Positive Environment/Fosters Esprit de Corps"
  9. "Prepares Self"
  10. "Develops Others"
  11. "Stewards the Profession"
  12. "Gets Results

From the U.S. Army Field Manual 6-22 Leader

Development, [pdf], (June 30, 2015), shared for

educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. 

We all have strengths. A team can help balance each other's weaknesses by sharing their strengths.


The 25th Amendment was added in 1967, more recently than when the Constitution was  written in 1776. The amendment allows a President to be removed from office due to their being "unable to discharge the powers and duties"  of the office. However, a specific description or requirements for being fit enough to fulfill the duties and discharge the powers of the President's office is not included.  

     A psychiatrist wondered if any other written works might contain any more specific guidance about being fit for duty and she reviewed a variety of sources. A field guide for a division of the U.S. military provided the only specific guidance she could find regarding criteria for assessing whether a leader was "unable to discharge the powers and duties" of their office.

     Read more: "Is Trump mentally fit to be president?  Let's consult the U.S. Army's field manual on leadership,"  by Prudence L. Gourguechon  (L.A.Times, June 16, 2017)

     The U.S. Army’s “Field Manual 6-22 Leader Development" is approved for public release with unlimited distribution. It is 188 pages and includes guidance for training exercises to help improve skills the army considers helpful for leaders and indicators for assessing leadership potential and current skills.

20 Science Questions