20 Science Questions

that U.S. presidential candidates were asked in 2016

The answers provided on this site for the 20 Science Questions for Presidential Candidates  vary in the amount of detail provided and in their length. Nutrition and medical topics are my area of experience and were my reason for becoming interested in federal level politics. Many businesses are involved but the federal government directly affects the care of many people and has influence over the health care of most people.


Answers for questions that are not in my area of experience are more general because I would expect that an elected official would be able to work with a team of experienced professionals and would learn more about the issues before writing specific goals - or treatment plans - for making changes in government policy.

"First do no harm," is attributed to Hippocrates an ancient Greek author of medical textbooks.


The exact wording does not include the word "first" according to a physician who wrote about the quote on the Harvard Health Blog, "First, do no harm."


He mentions that in real-world situations trying to follow the goal to "first, do no harm," can be difficult "because estimates of risk and benefit" of medical treatments can be "uncertain and prone to error."  More quality research was recommended so that physicians would be able to make more accurate medical decisions.




Risks can be difficult to know or predict but doing nothing can also be a risk, or bigger risk, depending on the situation.


Making a decision based on evidence and experience considers the pros and cons of possible actions - doing something versus maintaining the current situation - doing nothing.