From Figure 1-1: Attributes required of a leader in the Army field guide include:
Competencies required of a leader in the Army field manual include:
From the U.S. Army Field Manual 6-22 Leader
Development, [pdf], (June 30, 2015), shared for
educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use.
A model or table or graph helps make complex topics more manageable. One skill can be considered at a time or a group of skills can be considered in relation to another group. Lists of criteria to consider can help track progress and plan future goals or note areas where skills are lacking and additional training or team members may be needed to fill the gap.
The Army field manual includes a few example evaluation forms that are fairly specific to military needs. The requirements suggested in Figure 1-1 for leadership may be helpful in general for anyone interested in evaluating and improving their own or their team's effectiveness as leaders and teammates.
A checklist can be used to track progress or note areas of strength or weakness:
1. Attribute - Character
2. Army Values
4. Warrior Ethos
5. Service Ethos
7. Attribute - Presence
8. Military bearing
9. Professional bearing
13. Attribute - Intellect
14. Mental agility
17. Interpersonal tact
19. Competency - Leads
20. Leads others
21. Builds trust
22. Extends influence
23. Leads by example
25. Competency - Develops
26. Creates a positive environment
27. Prepares self
28. Develops others
29. Stewards the profession
30. Competency - Achieves
31. Gets results
32. Integrates tasks, roles, resources, and priorities
33. Improves performance
34. Gives feedback
35. Executes (takes action on plans)
36. Adjusts (changes plans as needed)
20 Science Questions
Disclaimer: this information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use.
that U.S. presidential candidates were asked in 2016
If someone is going the wrong way and you think you know a safer way, then it seems ethically wrong to me to not try to help warn of the danger and point out the safer path.
I value help and try to take advice when it seems like a good idea and that I am capable of achieving.
Disclaimer: this information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use.
How can we tell if a leader is fit for duty? The 25th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states that a President may be removed from office due to their being "unable to discharge the powers and duties" of the office, however a specific description or requirements for being fit enough to fulfill the duties and discharge the powers of the President's office is not included.
Traits or skills the Army considers requirements for effective leadership are grouped into attributes and competencies in a model, Figure 1-1.
Attributes to develop in a leader include character, presence, and intellect and competencies include leads, develops, and achieves.
The U.S. Army field manual (FM 6-22) on Leader Development includes material and jargon that wouldn't directly apply to workers in a business setting however much of the guidance may be helpful for anyone interested in assessing and developing their own and their team's skills in leadership and effectiveness at working together. Table 1-2 includes criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of a team:
To lead, one must first learn how to follow -- how to follow the common sense advice from parents and teachers and other leaders, but then as we mature as adults in charge of our own actions, we also have to learn when to ignore the group and follow our own common sense -- what is working today, here and now, in this current environment for us as an individual or for us as a group?
The common sense tactics that we are used to using traditionally, may not work as effectively in the modern situation. Denying that change has occurred can be a natural instinct. The familiar routine seems safer to our instincts but in a changed environment it may no longer be the safest strategy and may have become a dangerous one.
Recognizing that change has occurred and adapting to the new circumstances is part of being an effective leader. Adjusting a plan as needed is included in the competency skill termed Achieves.
The emotional support a child receives from parents or other caregivers or role models can have a lasting effect on how the child relates to others and their tendency to trust or be fearful of others as an adult. It can affect a child's ability to work well with others and with society versus acting out.
An excerpt from "The Politics of Attachment; towards a secure society":
Attachment style is a term used in the area of early child development to describe the types of emotional connection commonly seen between children and their caregivers. Three basic styles have been observed which include secure, avoidant, and anxious. [The styles are described in an interview. video]
The secure style may seem ideal as it supports the child's creativity and autonomy but in a dangerous environment a more fear based child-rearing style may have had some benefits in producing adults with more caution or ability to follow their group's leader without question.
In the business setting the attachment style of individuals and of the management style can affect the mood and effectiveness of the group. Customers can lose trust in a business when they perceive a negative work environment.
Attachment styles from early childhood and how secure we feel in general seems to affect how trusting we tend to be with others or with willingness to try a new product. Our early childhood experiences may also impact our political choices more than we realize. The topic of building trust by recognizing those early childhood values is included in the book Moral Politics, which was discussed in more detail on the previous page of this site, Fit for Duty.
"Core values" is used in the attachment theory work from the area of early childhood development rather than "moral values," but both refer to the idea that we have underlying beliefs, learned in childhood, that guide our choices without our always being consciously aware that a choice was being made.
Or we might be aware that there is a choice between "good" and "bad" but our definition of which choice is good and which is bad might not match someone else's because the underlying core values on which each person is basing their choices don't match. This point is stressed in the book Moral Politics. Conservatives and liberals may both feel moral about making a "good" choice but they may not realize that the other person might think the choice is "bad" or even "evil."
Both the education from our early childhood experiences and our genetic potential may be involved however. Differences have been found between the brain structure of conservatives and liberals. MRI scans found the size of several areas of the brain that are involved in emotional processing and decision making to be different.
Conservatives have been found to respond more strongly to issues involving emotions of fear and disgust which are also emotions more associated with the amygdala in neuroscience. An increased sense of insiders and outsiders has also been found more prevalent in conservatives than liberals and which may also be more associated with activity of the amygdala.
The liberal brain may be more open to new experiences and more able to see a need for change to occur, while the conservative brain may feel safer with the routine. Viewing each other as specialized in different ways and therefore having value in different ways might help us work together more effectively as a team.
My own early childhood likely left me with a mixture of styles. Inconsistency was sometimes an issue which work in the area of attachment styles suggests can be more emotionally difficult for the child than learning how to survive in a negative environment that is consistently negative - except in the case of severe abuse.
As we mature over the decades our social skills and ability to understand and work with others tends to improve. Attachment styles and our core values can be changed with therapy and practice but it isn't easy. Recognizing that core values can affect our decisions may be an easier place to start.
The list of requirements for a leader in the U.S. Army can also be an easy place to start because in a way it is a list of values as well as skills. It is unlikely that people become proficient at something unless they also value the activity or attitude.
When we practice an "attitude of gratitude" we can become both more aware of our strengths and reduce weakness by reducing negative affects of stress. The fitness demands of a leader are somewhat realistic because physical health and healthy habits can help overcome the negative affects of stress. However some disability might be able to be overcome with the aid of technology or extra staffing support.
My own skill set has strengths but it also has gaps which I recognized but I was concerned that better nutrition care and more effective health care are necessary for the overall health of the nation and stability of the economy. "Insurance" doesn't buy health. It can help pay for medical care but it can't "insure" that the care will be effective. Diagnosing and treating underlying causes needs to be more of a focus than our current for-profit system is providing. A not-for-profit preventative care model could help prevent chronic illness and birth defects and save quality of life and reduce overall health care costs.
I had hoped to travel and meet others who might want to help, but my physical health (#10) was not adequate for traveling or for endurance activities, or excessive heat and sunshine, or for eating much variety of food. So whether I have good social skills (#17) and the ability to build trust (#21) is important but physically being able to travel places is also important for a leader.
So my slogans over the years have reflected that my goals were focused more on sharing information than promoting myself as an ideal leader:
For clarity, an explanation of each: